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According to the CIA, Monaco has the highest life expectancy at almost 90 years old. Countries with a good healthcare system, low rates of violence, and democracy, among other factors, are more likely to have a higher life expectancy. Certain places in Asia, such as Macau, Japan, and Singapore, range between 84 and 83 years.
Asia’s relative advantage is related not only to genetics, but also its universal healthcare system and better diet. The United States, with an average life expectancy of 77.49, ranks fiftieth, which is below middle income countries such as Gibraltar, Denmark, and Portugal. At the bottom of the list is the African country, Chad, with an average life expectancy of 49 years.
Why are Monacans expected to live so much longer than anyone else? Monaco borders the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy, and is the second-smallest independent state in the world (after Vatican City). Monaco is home to 30,510 people and became independent in 1419 by the House of Grimaldi. Monaco is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casinos and pleasant climate.
The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monacans have access to good water, sanitation, and healthcare, and zero percent of the population has AIDS or HIV.
In contrast, Chad faces many health problems, such as malaria, Hepatitis A, and meningitis. The Chad government estimates that 11,000 people died due to AIDS or HIV in 2009. Currently, 210,000 Chadians are living in the country with AIDS or HIV. Residents of Chad have less access to healthcare than Monacans, mostly because of poverty.
Animals with diseases are another factor of risk for Chadians that sometimes consume poisonous foods due to the lack of regulations. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. At least 80 percent of Chad’s population relies on subsistence farming and raising livestock for its livelihood.
Transnational issues do not help the life expectancy of Chadians. There is a lot of crime and violence on the cross-border with Cameroon, Sudan, and Nigeria. Moreover, Chadian children are trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for forced labor and forced prostitution.